Serving Patients in Tampa Bay, FL and Beverly Hills, CA View Testimonials
View Testimonials


Tampa, Saint Petersburg and Clearwater, Fl
Tampa, Saint Petersburg and Clearwater, Fl


Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a condition in which the blood supply to the bone has been disrupted, resulting in avascularity (ischemia), that leads to bone cell death (necrosis).

The extent of the ischemia, will determine how much bone may become necrotic.

The ankle/foot may be affected in several ways. The ankle mortise, which is the articulation of the tibia and talus may both be affected. The talus may be solely affected, or the tibia alone. The navicular bone, adjacent to the talus, may be affected alone.

Resulting in more foot than ankle pain. Additionally, the metatarsals may be affected, giving rise to forefoot pain.



Avascular Necrosis (AVN)


Ischemic Necrosis

Aseptic Necrosis

Bone infarction



Depending on which bone is affected the ankle or foot may be tender and swollen.

Some cases are gradual onset and diagnosis is not early. Post-traumatic AVN, especially after fractures may be confusing with the history of painful trauma, the diagnosis may be delayed or symptoms attributed to the original injury or ensuing surgery for fractures.




Idiopathic (unknown)

Steroids (cortisone)

Alcohol excess


Disease states (Lupus, Gaucher’s, Caisson’s, Sickle cell)



Depending on the severity or joint involvement, recommendations from various specialist may differ. Some almost advise joint replacement surgery as an option in early cases of commonly replaced joints such as the knee or hip.

The ankle and foot are less amenable to joint replacement, and discussions of fusion occur. Patients often desire a conservative treatment route for avascular necrosis of the foot and ankle.

REGENERATIVE MEDICINE TREATMENTS such as Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and STEM CELL THERAPY have been used successfully in treating AVN of many different regions, besides the ankle/foot. Treating AVN by assisting the body to heal naturally is part of Regenerative Medicine. Stem cells naturally aid the body in healing. By understanding how Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and Stem Cell Therapy may assist in restoring blood flow and forming new bone, early treatment may occur that may prevent the bone collapse and secondary arthritis from developing.


For more information on Stem Cell Therapy and AVN

For information on the special concerns of Athletes and AVN



Dennis M. Lox, MD, serves patients in the greater Tampa Bay area, including, Clearwater, St. Petersburg, Tampa, New Port Richey, Sarasota, Orlando and Spring Hill. He has been pleased to accommodate the needs of patients throughout Florida, the United States, the Western Hemisphere, and Europe, as well. Located in the 33765 and 33765 areas, our offices can be reached at (727) 462-5582 (Clearwater) and (727) 817-1909 (New Port Richey). Call to schedule your visit today.