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Shoulder Pain and Injuries: How To Avoid Shoulder Surgery

Anatomy of The Shoulder

Shoulder pain can be stemming from many different causes.  Sometimes it’s not just one cause, its several.  The shoulder has many moving parts, so it is not a simple joint.  It’s quite complex.  Let’s go over the shoulder anatomy to give you a better idea.
Anatomy of The Shoulder

The shoulder is made up of two joints, the acromioclavicular joint and the glenohumeral joint.  The acromioclavicular joint is where the acromion, part of the shoulder blade (scapula) and the collar bone (clavicle) meet.  The glenohumeral joint is where the ball (humeral head) and the socket (the glenoid) meet.  The rotator cuff connects the humerus to the scapula and is made up of the tendons of FOUR muscles.

Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor and the Subscapularis.

Four muscles of the shoulder
The Four Muscles of The Shoulder

Tendons attach muscle to bone —> Muscles in turn move bones by pulling on the tendons.  The muscles of the rotator cuff keep the humerus tightly in the socket.  The socket, or the glenoid, is shallow and flat.  It is rimmed with soft tissue called the labrum that makes a deeper socket that molds to fit the humeral head.  The joint capsule surrounds the shoulder joint.  It is a fluid filled sac that lubricates the joint.  It is made up of ligaments.  Ligaments are soft tissue that holds bone to bone.  Shoulder injuries and shoulder pain can occur to ANY part of the shoulder that was just explained.

Causes of Shoulder Pain

There could be many different reasons why you may be experiencing shoulder pain.


Shoulder Arthritis Dr. Lox
Shoulder Arthritis
Shoulder pain can result from arthritis. There are many types of arthritis.  The most common type of arthritis in the shoulder is osteoarthritis.  This is also known as “wear and tear” arthritis. Some common symptoms are swelling, pain, and stiffness. Osteoarthritis develops slowly and the pain it causes can worse over time if nothing is done.

Avascular Necrosis

Avascular Necrosis of  the shoulder is a condition characterized by interruption of blood supply to the humeral head which may lead to

avn shoulder
AVN of the Shoulder

humeral head sclerosis and subchondral collapse.  Diagnosis is made radiographically with orthogonal radiographs of the shoulder in moderate/late disease.  MRI may be needed for detection of early or subclinical Avascular Necrosis. Avascular Necrosis can cause extreme shoulder pain.


Bursae are small, fluid-filled sacs that are located in joints throughout the body, including the shoulder. They act as cushions between bones and the

shoulder bursitis
Shoulder Bursitis

overlying soft tissues, and help reduce friction between the gliding muscles and the bone.  Sometimes, excessive use of the shoulder leads to inflammation, shoulder pain and swelling of the bursa between the rotator cuff and part of the shoulder blade known as the acromion. The result is a condition known as subacromial bursitis.  

Tendon Tears

Splitting and tearing of tendons may result from acute injury or degenerative changes in the tendons due to advancing age, long-term overuse and wear and tear, or a sudden injury. These tears may be partial

Shoulder injuries
                    Tears in The Shoulder

or may completely separate the tendon from its attachment to bone. In most cases of complete tears, the tendon is pulled away from its attachment to the bone. Rotator cuff and biceps tendon injuries are among the most common of these injuries.  This also causes shoulder pain.


Impingement of The Shoulder

Shoulder impingement occurs when the top of the shoulder blade (acromion) puts pressure on the underlying soft tissues when the arm is lifted away from the body. As the arm is lifted, the acromion rubs, or “impinges” on, the rotator cuff tendons and bursa. This can lead to bursitis and tendinitis, causing shoulder pain and limiting movement.

Doctor’s Evaluation and Physical Exam

When patients come to see Dr. Lox with a complaint of shoulder pain, he conducts a thorough evaluation.  Every patient is different.  There is no “one size fits all” when it comes to medicine and regenerative therapy.  He will look for physical abnormalities, swelling, deformity or muscle weakness, and check for tender areas. He will also observe your shoulder range of motion and strength.

Can Regenerative Therapy Help?

After carefully evaluating each patient, Dr. Lox will then discuss if you are a good candidate for Regenerative Therapy. Their goals and their condition are important to formulating a treatment plan when Dr. Lox is considering Regenerative Medicine. In addition to Regenerative Medicine options, a structured exercise program must be addressed. It is too often that patients are doing the wrong exercises and aggravating their underlying shoulder condition. Dr. Lox can help in this regard. A proper program understands not just what the shoulder problem is, but what keeps aggravating it.

Dr. Dennis Lox, Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Therapy

Contact Us

Patients from all over the world have traveled to consult with Dr. Lox for Regenerative Therapy and Stem Cell Treatment.  If you would like to schedule a consultation, please contact the office.

Dr. Lox

Whether you are a professional athlete, weekend warrior, or have arthritis from aging, Dr. Lox can help.

Dennis M. Lox, M.D. is an internationally renown Sports and Regenerative Medicine specialist. Dr. Lox incorporates Regenerative Medicine techniques such as cell science applications, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP), and Tissue Engineering aspects, to help patients from around the world with a vast array of problems. Dr. Lox is board certified in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Dr. Lox lectures extensively and has edited two PM&R textbooks, the prestigious A State of the Art Review (Star) on Low Back Pain, and Soft Tissue Injuries: Diagnosis and Treatment.

Dennis M. Lox, M.D. maintains an active practice in the Tampa Bay, Florida area, and in Beverly Hills, California.

Are You Looking to Avoid Surgery?

If you haven't found joint relief should schedule a personal consultation with Dennis M. Lox, M.D., to learn if you are able to get joint relief without the need for invasive surgery.

Stem Cell Therapy in Clearwater, FL and Beverly Hills, CA

Dr. Lox treats the Tampa Bay Metro Area including Clearwater, St. Petersburg, Tampa , Pinellas Park, Palm Harbor, Orlando and Sarasota as well as the Los Angeles Metro Area including Santa Monica and Beverly Hills.

Call our office in Clearwater, FL or Beverly Hills, CA to schedule a consultation with Dr. Dennis Lox.

Clearwater, Florida Office

2030 Drew St.
Clearwater, FL 33765
(727) 462-5582

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450 N Roxbury Dr. #602
Beverly Hills, CA 90210
(310) 975-7033

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